This recording was made in Honglefu Daotang (“Hall of Dao”) of Jahriyya Sufism after the Asr prayer (the third of the five daily prayers) on November 6, 2011. Honglefu Daotang is located in the suburb of the city of Qingtongxia, in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of Northwest China.

What is captured in the audio is a collective recitation of Awraad (أوراد), a text that consists primarily of Qur’anic verses, praises of the Holy Prophet, and supplications to God. Awraad is often recited by Jahriyya Sufis after the Fajr prayer in the early morning and Asr prayer in late afternoon. The recitation lasts about eight minutes, with the voices gradually intensifying near the end. The collective chanting of patterned dhikr is encompassed by this recitation that includes more complex Arabic poetries and proses. Though there do exist some textual interpretations of Awraad, the text itself has not been assembled into a “book” that can be studied. And different from other Jahriyya Sufi texts that may have been translated into Chinese and published by some Muslim literary scholars in China, we have little public exposure of this text despite its daily recitation. Jahriyya students often have to learn this recitation completely through emulating its vocal rendition either by their own teachers or as recorded in cassettes and CDs made specifically for the purpose of training. In other words, the transmission of Awraad still largely follows an oral tradition which still reigns supreme among the Jahriyya despite the availability of some of its texts.

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